Friday, August 6, 2010

preservative known

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To obtain maximum results should be used in young fruit. More and more pineapple is used, the more cepa process works. Represent Papain papaya latex enzyme, extracted from the fruit of 2.5 ~ 3 months old. Can be used to make soft the meat, purification material on beer beverage industry, textile industry, tanning industry, pharmaceutical industry and makeup (cosmetics) and other unusual papain-lain.Enzim traded in the form of yellowish white powder, refined, and its water level 8%. This enzyme should be stored below 60 degrees C. At this temperature one (1) papaya can be done five times leads. Each leads generate + 20 grams of latex. Gum can be taken every four days with the way the fruit is scraped with a knife.
3) Preserving BY CHEMICAL

Using chemicals, such as sugar, salt, nitrate, nitrite, sodium benzoate, propionic acid, citric acid, sulfate salts, and other smoking-lian.Proses also include chemical means for the chemicals in the smoke entered into preserved foods. If the exact amount pemakainannya, preservation with chemicals in food is very practical because it can inhibit the breeding of micro-organisms such as fungi or mold, bacteria and yeast.
a) propionic acid (sodium propionate or calcium propionate) is often used to inhibit the growth of fungus or mold. For wheat flour, the maximum dose used was 0.32% atau3, 2 grams / kg of materials, while for materials of the cheese, the maximum dose of 0.3% or 3 g / kg of materials.
b) Citric Acid (citric acid) is the intermediate of organic acid compounds that form crystals or white powder. Maudah citric acid is soluble in water, spriritus, danethanol, no smell, taste very sour, and when heated will melt and then decompose the subsequent burning to become arang.Asam citrate also found in fruit juices like pineapple, orange, lemon, passion fruit . This acid is used to improve the taste of acid (adjust the acidity level) at various processing drink, milk products, jam, jelly, and others. Citric acid serves as a preservative in cheese dansirup, is used to prevent crystallization in honey, sugars (including fondant), and also to prevent bleaching various foods, such as canned fruits and fish. Yangencer citric acid solution can be used to prevent the formation of black spots on shrimp. Maximum usage in beverages amounted 3gram/liter juice.
c) Benzoate (acidum benzoicum or flores benzoes or benzoic acid) usually traded Benzoate benzoate is the sodium salt, with the characteristics of white powder or crystal, fine, a little smelly, salty taste, and on high heat will melt and then burn
d) Represents bleng phosphate salt solution, crystal-shaped, and yellowish. Bleng lot containing boron and a few other minerals. Additions bleng than as a preservative in food processing, especially crackers, as well as to develop and elastic materials, and provide the aroma and flavor as a preservative khas.Penggunaannya maximum of 20 grams per 25 kg of material. Bleng can be mixed directly in the dough after dissolved in water or deposited first and then the liquid is mixed into the dough.
e) kitchen salt (sodium chloride) Salt kitchen in a pure state is colorless, but sometimes a brownish yellow color comes from impurities in it. Sea water contains salt + 3%. Table salt as a barrier to microbial growth, are often used to preserve fish and other ingredients. Pengunaannya as a preservative of at least 20% or 2 oz / kg of materials.
f) sulfate salts are used in foods to prevent yeast, bacteria and brownish color during cooking.
g) caster sugar used as a preservative and is more effective when used with the aim of inhibiting the growth of bacteria. As a preservative, minimal use of granulated sugar 3%, or 30 g / kg bahan.Kaporit (Calcium hypochlorit or hypochloris calsiucus chlorine or chlorine kalkatau lime) is a mixture of Calcium hypochlorit, da-chloride-oxide, a white powder which is often agglomerate to form granules. Usually contain 25 ~ 70% active chlorine and smells very khas.Kaporit containing chlorine is used to sterilize water minumdan swimming pool, and wash the fish.
i) Sodium metabisulphite Sodium metabisulphite traded shaped crystals. Its use in a food processing process aims to prevent browning in fruits before processing, eliminating odor and bitter taste, especially in cassava and to maintain in order to keep menarik.Natrium metabisulphite colors can be dissolved together material or smoked. The principle of fumigation is SO2 gas stream into the material prior to drying. Fumigation carried out during the + 15 min. Maximum use as much as 2 grams / kg of materials. Excessive sodium metabisulphite will be lost during drying.
j) Nitrite and Nitrate There is in the form of potassium salt and sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite is white grain, whereas potassium nitrite putihatau yellow color and high solubility in water. Nitrite and nitrate can inhibit growth of bacteria on meat danikan in a short time. Often used in dilayukan danging have to maintain the red color of meat. The added amount of nitrite is usually 0.1% or 1 g / kg of the material preserved. For nitrate, 0.2% or 2 grams / kg of materials. If more darijumlah will cause poisoning, and therefore the use of nitrite and nitrate regulated in the legislation. To overcome the use of nitrite poisoning is usually mixed with an equal amount of nitrate. Nitrate will be converted into nitrites little by little so that the amount of nitrites in meat are not excessive.
k) burp, is an organic compound in the form of white or colorless crystals, it was salty and cool. Burp-soluble and melt padasuhu dalamair 377 oC. There are three forms of saltpeter, which is potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate. Saltpeter can be prepared by reacting potassium chloride with nitric acid or sodium nitrate. In the industry used to make matches, explosives, fertilizers, and also for food preservatives. Maximum usage of 0.1% or 1 g / kg of materials.
l) Coloring Dyes Substance added to foods such as meat, vegetables, fruits and others to attract consumers' tastes and desires. Natural coloring matter is a frequently used turmeric, caramel and pandanus. Compared with natural dyes, then the synthetic dyes have many advantages in terms of diversity of color, good uniformity and stability, and storage easier and more durable. For example carbon black is often used to give black, titanium oxide to whiten, and others. Natural dye materials that match the colors rarely yangdinginkan.
4. Germ-free PROCESS
There are two ways of germ-free process, namely sterilization and pasteurization sterilization process is free of germs, viruses, spores and fungi. This sterile state can be achieved by natural or natural kimiawi.Secara can be done by:
- Heating equipment in boiling water at a temperature of 100oC for 15menit, for deadly germs and viruses;
- Heating equipment in the water boils at 120 oC for 15menit to kill spores and fungi. Chemically can be done using antiseptics and disinfectants.
a. Antiseptic is a substance that can inhibit or kill the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and other living tissue. There are several ingredients that are often used as an antiseptic, among others:
1. Alcohol, effectively used with concentrations of 50 ~ 70%; to break down proteins in the germ so that its growth stunted.
2. Acid and alkali, its use is similar to alcohol.
3. Mercury (hidrargirum = Hg), arsenic (As) and Argentum (Ag), which works through an enzyme system in germs.
Pengoksida, also worked on germ enzyme system. Consisting of iodine for skin disinfection and chlorine for disinfecting drinking water.
5. Dyes, especially analin and akridin used to color the germs so easy to find which of the network, which will be inhibited bacteria growth.
6.Pengalkil, who used to break down bacterial proteins so that their activities hampered. An example is formaldehyde.
b. Represents disinfectant chemicals used to prevent infection or contamination microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses, as well as to kill the germs of other diseases. Types of commonly used disinfectants are chlorine or formaldehyde. This species is more effective when mixed with water, especially in the manufacture of ice. To maintain the quality of fish use of chlorine as much as 0.05% or 0.5 grams / liter of water is very effective pasteurization conducted by heating the place where food or beverages are filled in boiling water at a temperature of at least 63o C for 30 minutes, then immediately removed and cooled to a maximum temperature of 10 degreeC. In this way it could inhibit bacterial growth quickly without affecting the taste of food and beverages.


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